GCMD selects Lloyd’s Register for LCO2 offloading concept study

Press Release: The Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation  (GCMD) is pleased to award its concept study on offloading liquefied CO2 (LCO2) captured  onboard ships to Lloyd’s Register, supported by their partner Arup. 


Addressing a gap in the value chain  


Shipboard carbon capture can be a mid-term solution for decarbonising international  shipping. For the industry to operationalise shipboard carbon capture technologies,  addressing the offloading of captured CO2 is key to the entire value chain. LCO2 is likely  one of the common forms in which CO2 will be stored and offloaded after its capture  onboard ships, and its offloading is likely to take place alongside concurrent cargo and/or  bunkering operations. The GCMD concept study will address safety and operational  considerations surrounding offloading of LCO2 that has been captured onboard tankers,  bulkers and container liners, including articulating the temperatures and pressures under  which this process would optimally take place and the different receptacles to be used for  this purpose. The outcome of the study can also provide insights for off-loading CO2 as a  cargo under currently less-established operating and storage conditions. 


The GCMD LCO2 offloading study: a fundamental prerequisite 


Currently, there are no guidelines for offloading captured CO2. The findings of the study  will form a basis to enable sea trials in Phase 3 of Project REMARCCABLE (Realising  Maritime Carbon Capture to demonstrate the Ability to Lower Emissions). One of the  world’s largest end-to-end demonstrations of shipboard CO2 capture at scale, Project  REMARCCABLE is a 500-hr pilot that will be using non-proprietary amine-based solution,  aiming to demonstrate 30% annual CO2 emissions reduction or 1300 kg/hr of CO2, store  375 metric tonnes of LCO2 onboard, and offload LCO2 after 10 days of sailing.


GCMD announced its Invitation-for-Proposals (IFP) on 6 December 2022 to a shortlist of  classification societies and engineering consultants. The shortlisted recipients were invited  to articulate the concept design for offloading shipboard liquefied CO2 captured on board  ships to shore, and to ship storage facilities in major ports, of which guidelines are also not  available for large-scale CO2 cargo offloading. In response to the IFP, a total of six  proposals were received. In addition to internal evaluators, GCMD solicited the input and  assessment of three external evaluators, all of whom are industry veterans with extensive  domain expertise.  


On awarding the GCMD concept study to Lloyd’s Register, Professor Lynn Loo, CEO of the  Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation, said: “We are pleased to be working with  Lloyd’s Register on this LCO2 offloading concept study. The learnings from this study will  inform how captured CO2 can be offloaded from various vessel types in general, and enable the sea trials on Stena Impero that are being planned as part of Project REMARCCABLE  more specifically.” 


Assessing and validating the land-side infrastructure for LCO2 offloading 


A broader intent of this LCO2 offloading concept study is to assess the readiness of current  infrastructure for LCO2 offloading. Scenario-based CAPEX and OPEX models for LCO2 offloading infrastructure buildout and operation costs will be generated. Additionally, a  review of existing gaps in analytical methods, verification procedures, competency  standards, and regulation regimes that are needed to enable LCO2 offloading at major  ports will be conducted.  


GCMD aims to validate and finalise the study’s findings with industry stakeholders, such as port and terminal operators, vessel owners, and shipyards. Through this concept study,  GCMD will help support the establishment of regulatory and operational guidelines and  help set a precedence for future piloting and demonstration projects related to shipboard  carbon capture technologies at scale. With both the Maritime and Port Authority of  Singapore (MPA) and the Port of Rotterdam Authority (POR) as observers on this study, the  findings can help assess the prospects of LCO2 to support maritime decarbonisation. 


On being successfully awarded the Invitation-for-Proposal, Nick Brown, CEO of Lloyd’s  Register, said: “Conducting this concept study for the Global Centre for Maritime  Decarbonisation will deliver greater industry understanding around the safety and  operational issues that need addressing for offloading captured LCO2 from vessels. This  study, in collaboration with stakeholders from across the maritime value chain, will support  the establishment of regulatory and operational guidelines around offloading captured  liquid carbon dioxide from vessels, which is crucial to enabling safe adoption of carbon  capture technologies on board. It will also offer a timely assessment of the capital  expenditure and operating expenditure of the infrastructure needed to offload liquid  carbon dioxide from ships thus enabling the industry to make informed decisions for  creating this infrastructure.”  


Borbala Trifunovics, Ports & Maritime Leader at Arup, said “Action on maritime  decarbonisation requires innovative new approaches to infrastructure and operations at  ports. We are bringing together our maritime and energy expertise to shape solutions for  LCO2 offloading that are safe, efficient and integrated with wider port functions.” 


To support the study, GCMD has convened a consortium of Study Partners and Observers who have the relevant domain expertise, interest and experience to provide inputs over the  course of the project and support the review of the final report. A list of participating organisations can be found at Annex A. 


The study will commence in April 2023 and is expected to complete within 9 months. 


Annex A


Study Partners


Alfa Laval
Boston Consulting Group (BCG)
bp Shipping
BW Epic Kosan
Eastern Pacific Shipping (EPS)
Jurong Port
Keppel Offshore & Marine1
Kawasaki Kisen Kaisha, Ltd (“K” Line)
Navigator Gas
Olympic Shipping


1 Keppel Offshore & Marine Ltd is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Sembcorp Marine Ltd.


Pavilion Energy
PSA Singapore
SeaTech Solutions International (S) Pte Ltd
Sembcorp Marine
Singapore Shipping Association (SSA)




Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore
Port of Rotterdam Authority

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